What is the atmosphere?

What is air, what is the atmosphere that gives us this air? We live, breathe, go to work, have fun, play sports, and rarely think about what supports us in life. In addition to water and food, without which you can live for some time, without air, a person is doomed to death within a few minutes.

What is the atmosphere

The concept of the atmosphere comes from the ancient Greek words "steam" and "ball." That is, a ball of steam, or rather the geosphere would be more correct to say - the gas envelope surrounding our planet.

  • The inner surface of the geosphere covers the hydrosphere and partly the Earth's crust, its outer part borders on the near-Earth part of space. Thanks to the atmosphere that surrounds our planet, life appeared here.

In its composition, the earth's atmosphere is very different from what surrounds the other planets of the solar system.

  • The atmosphere has a layered structure. The densest layer of air that is adjacent to the earth’s surface is the troposphere, the main composition of which is nitrogen and oxygen. There are more than 4/5 of the entire earth's atmosphere.
  • Next comes the tropopause and stratosphere. In the stratosphere, air molecules, under the action of cosmic radiation, are converted into ozone, forming an ozone layer, which is located at a distance of 30-40 kilometers from the earth's surface.
  • Above is the mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere.
  • The oxygen-nitrogen composition of the Earth’s atmosphere persists to approximately 500 km altitude. Above, helium dominates in the atmosphere.

The Earth's atmosphere protects us from hard ultraviolet radiation, sudden temperature changes, meteorites and other celestial "guests." It gives us the opportunity to breathe, and therefore live. Therefore, concern for the environmental safety of our planet, the preservation of the purity of the atmosphere of our Earth, is one of the main tasks facing scientists.

What pollutes the atmosphere

Man pollutes the atmosphere for thousands of years, but until the breakthrough in science and technology, which fell on the XIX – XX centuries, began, the consequences of his life activity were insignificant. Even a relatively significant concentration of people in a small area, as it was in the Middle Ages, was not accompanied by serious consequences.

Over the past 100-150 years, the rapid development of industry has "endowed" us with such advanced technologies, the consequences of which can hardly be fully realized. There were cities in which millions of inhabitants are concentrated and which continue to grow steadily.

More and more new production facilities are being created, mining of precious and rare earth metals such as nickel, lead and so on is developing, mining of which not only catastrophically pollutes the atmosphere, but also increases the incidence of such terrible diseases as cancer, tuberculosis, skin diseases.

All this is the result of the great inventions and conquests of man, which leads to pollution of the atmosphere.

The discovery of the neutron, led to the creation of neutron weapons that kill all living things. Extraction of oil in the sea leads to environmental disasters.

The main sources of air pollution are enterprises belonging to the fuel and energy complex, the manufacturing industry, and modern transport also belongs here. 80% of total emissions are emissions of sulfur dioxide, carbon oxides, hydrocarbons, nitrogen and solids.One of the most numerous classes of substances that pollute the air in large cities are hydrocarbons.

What is dangerous pollution of the atmosphere

Pollution of the atmosphere is dangerous because it can lead to the greenhouse effect, destruction of the ozone layer, acid rain, photochemical smog. And all this threatens humanity and the Earth with destruction.

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