The coalition government is an interim government. The history of the formation of a coalition government in Russia
In 1917, after the February Revolution, the first coalition provisional government appeared. In order to understand the meaning of this definition, let's delve into the historical events of that time.
The causes of the Russo-Japanese War
One of the reasons for the emergence of a coalitiongovernment - this is the Russian-Japanese war of 1904-1905. Russia in this period of time was a strong power. Its influence began to spread to Europe and the Far East. The first targets were Korea and China.
Japan did not like Russian intervention. She wanted to get the Liaodong Peninsula, which belonged to China, but the Russian Empire concluded a deal and rented the peninsula and introduced troops to the neighboring province - Manchuria.
Requirements of Japan
Japan put forward demands: Russia must leave the province. Nicholas II understood that this territory is extremely important for spreading Russian influence to the Far East, and refused to withdraw troops. Thus began the Russo-Japanese War.
Results of the Russo-Japanese War
Both powers were strong, for territory were conductedfierce fighting. A year later the Russian troops began to retreat. The Japanese army, still combat-ready, was also exhausted. Japan's offer to Russia to conclude a treaty to end the war turned out to be successful. In August 1905, both sides signed a peace agreement.
According to the document, Japan joinedPort Arthur and the southern lands of the Sakhalin Peninsula. So the Japanese state strengthened its influence in the territory of Korea, and Russia, as the losing party, did not receive anything.
The results of the Russian-Japanese war led to the fact that discontent for the reign of Nicholas II only increased. A political crisis has come.
Preconditions for the revolution of 1905-1907.
In 1905-1907 years. a revolution broke out on the territory of Russia. There were several reasons for the coup d'état:
- the government did not want to carry out liberal reforms to legalize free trade, inviolability of private property, freedom of choice;
- poverty of peasants;
- 14-hour working day;
- the conduct of the violent russification of the state;
- defeat in the Russo-Polish war.
Provoked popular unrest BloodySunday, January 9, 1905. Workers refused to go to work and made a peaceful demonstration after the unfair dismissal of four employees of the Putilov enterprise. The rally participants, about 100 people, were shot.
In the autumn of 1905 there was a union of trade unions against the government. Then Nicholas II made concessions:
- created the State Duma;
- signed a document guaranteeing freedom of speech and the press.
Representatives of the Socialist-Revolutionaries, Mensheviks and employeesthe Constitutional Democratic Party declared the end of the revolution. But in December 1905 an armed coup attempt took place, which was neutralized in the first half of 1907, after the creation of the second State Duma - the first could not keep in power.
The Results of the Revolution
Results of the revolution of 1905-1907. are as follows:
- appearance of the State Duma;
- legalization of actions of political parties;
- abolition of redemption payments of peasants;
- the assertion of the right of the peasants to freedom of movement and the right of independent choice of a city for residence;
- permission to organize trade unions;
- reduction of the working day.
World War I
The situation during the First World War, whichbegan in 1914, was devastating for the state. The economy of Russia after the revolution of 1905-1907. was in decline. The participation of the state in the world war only aggravated the situation. The crisis manifested itself in the famine, poverty, and disorder of the military. The closure of a large number of factories and plants led to the lack of jobs.
The February Revolution
Problems in the economic, political andclass questions were not solved. The discontent of the people led to the February Revolution of 1917. The overthrow of Nicholas II, the creation of a coalition government - all this became a necessary measure for overcoming the crisis. In addition, after the coup, Russia automatically withdrew from the First World War.
Let's start with the term. The coalition government is a provisional government, which is created by the union of several parties only in a parliamentary state. This is due to the fragmentation of the deputies between the numerous parties. The need to form a coalition government is to create a stable political system.
After the French Revolution, power changedfour times. Participants in the State Duma offered to choose Nicholas II different versions of the lists of persons for the new government. The king disagreed. After the victory of the participants of the February Revolution, on March 1, 2017, he signed the document and resigned from the post of head of state.
The first coalition government
After the decision of the Provisional Committee of the Duma, May 5the first coalition government was formed. It was a desperate attempt to stabilize the economy in the country and establish a democratic path of development. The people who came to power in the Mensheviks loved the people less than the Bolsheviks. The offensive program in the fleet, proposed by the Minister of War Kerensky, did not receive support among the population. In July, there was a political crisis.
The second coalition government
The Second Coalition Government was createdunder the command of Kornilov. Kerensky, appointed to the post of minister-chairman, began a trial of the leaders of the Bolshevik Party, and representatives of the Socialists occupied half of the seats in the Duma. But this coalition government has also disintegrated.
The Third Coalition Government
The desire to create a state without representativesthe bourgeoisie at the top of the government led to the convocation of the Democratic Conference on September 24 - the Mensheviks were unable to rally forces against the Bolsheviks. Then they agreed to the creation of Kerensky's Third Coalition Government, which became the head of the state administration. His authority belonged to December 15, 1917. He was overthrown during another coup d'état, which was prepared by Lenin and Trotsky.
In Russia at the beginning of the 20th century, coalitionGovernments are provisional governments that tried to stop the economic collapse after hostilities and revolutions for the introduction of a democratic form of government. In total, three such governments were created, but none of them could hold power.