Light sensor for street lighting: description, wiring diagram, principle of operation and recommendations
The light sensor for street lighting is widely used to illuminate the streets at night. This is very convenient due to the economy of electricity and the fact that it does not need to be turned on and off with the help of hands.
To date, light sensors are in great demand in the coverage of private homes and house territories. Also economical photocell illuminate the space in the room. Installed near the stairs and doors for convenience. We will give a detailed description, provide a wiring diagram, explain the principle of operation and give the necessary recommendations for use.
It should be noted that for controlling the light supply at dusk and turning it off with the advent of dawn, two types of devices are used: a photorelay and an astrotimer.
The rule by which street lighting sensors function is to consist in a simple chain of actions:
- A detail that reacts to the appearance or absence of light changes its resistance when the intensity of light in a district changes. As a rule, this function is assigned to a photodiode, a resistor. In rare cases, a triac or thyristor.
- In order for the photocell to work, a special signal is sent through the adjustment circuit, which then goes to the transistor.
- The transistor incorporates a relay that is placed in the load network, after the received signal, its contacts begin to receive the load. And the light source comes to an active state of work.
If to put it differently, in simple words, the work of the light sensor in the photo relay occurs according to the same principle as that of the switch. With only one small and imperceptible difference, that the process takes place autonomously, without your any special intervention.
Each of us was engaged in collecting relays on the same principle in the lessons of fascinating physics in high school. So install a light sensor for street lighting do it yourself.no particular problems.
The main pledged and most important function of turning on and off the light is identical. Let's highlight some features of various devices:
- Today, almost all light sensors are equipped with a programming system to memorize the set parameters for a long and long time.
- Sensors have a manual installation, which allows you to insure if the program fails.
- The current models of devices have special fasteners for installing them on a wall or other surface.
- You can connect not one, but several sensors to one relay. You just need to use a parallel connection scheme.
The principle of operation and the main task of the photorelay is to turn on the light at dusk and turn it off when it starts to get light. If you are seriously thinking about purchasing a photocell, then pay attention to its different name in the sources. The result of this does not change: light comes in with the advent of darkness and is extinguished when visibility allows it.
Photorelay for street lighting: wiring diagram
The diagram shows that photoresistors were used to control the process of turning on and off the light,phototransistors and photodiodes. When exposed to direct sunlight, some values of the elements change. When the light disappears or begins to appear, that is, the values reach the set value, the relay contacts close or, respectively, open.
What determines the choice of photo relay?
Voltage.It may depend on the terrain and the current receiving capacity. 200 W or 12 V.
Protection classSince the device is installed on the street, that is, in an open area, it can interact with water. Therefore, it should have IP44, preferably not lower.
Choosing street light sensors to turn on the light, it is worth calculating whichaverage temperaturestand the device in the area where it will work. The average should be both the minimum and maximum temperature.
Output power and load current.This means that the lamps for photoelectric need to be selected under these parameters. To avoid any problems, buy lamps for the device with a certain reserve of current.
Sometimesthreshold of sensitivitydevice annoying for its accuracy. Choose a light sensor for street lighting that will not cause you inconvenience with constant switching on or, on the contrary, it will not work at the right time.
It is worth paying attention to the devices in which the sensitivity can be adjusted. This is necessary when outside the window, for example, winter, and electricity is not economically spent, even during snowfall.
What are the main parts of the light sensor for street lighting:
- The photocell is used to recognize the degree of natural light.
- Twilight photo switch.
- Time relay
- Amplifier for signals.
Delayed response. Why is it necessary?
For emergency shutdown and turn on the light. If the delay is set incorrectly or small for a case, for example, rays from a car headlight passing by a vehicle, the sensor will give light. And if it is set for 5-10 seconds, the incident is excluded.
Where to make installation photocell
In order for the device to always work properly and cope with the task entrusted to it, it must be correctly installed:
- The sun's rays of light should fall on it directly, without canopies and roofs.
- Unnatural light from the lamp and other lighting devices is best located away.
- Arrange it at such a height that dust, rain, snow can be easily cleaned from the device.
- Headlights is undesirable to constantly illuminate the photo relay.
The photorelay for street lighting (the connection diagram is presented in the article) must be installed, following certain rules.
For proper installation and safety, follow the instructions below:
- Install the sensor with a sealed box.
- Place the photocell in an accessible place.
- Consider adding a contactee to the relay circuit. This is necessary in the case when you need a powerful current, and on and off will be very frequent.
This figure shows a diagram of a day-night sensor with a contactor (starter).
Possible installation of photocell with motion sensor. If you, for example, need to illuminate the space near the gate. Or your cottage toilet is on the street, then at night we will just need to light your way to it.
In this case, in the scheme, you need to put, firstly, a photosensitive switch, and secondly, a motion sensor. But then the light sensor will work only at night, when it is dark.
How to connect a light sensor for street lighting: the scheme and principle of operation
The photo relay of any developer includes three wires. Colors, as a rule, do not differ: red, blue, black.There may be an option: red, dark green, brown.
What should be remembered:
- Red goes directly to the lamp.
- Blue or green - to zero.
- The black or brown wire is put on the phase.
Be careful when connecting, the neutral wire must also be put on the lamp. In the diagrams below, the wires are shown in the same color as in the description.
Principle of adjustment of the photorelay for street lighting
Relay adjustment should be carried out after connecting it to the network. For adjustment and installation of sensitivity in the lower part of the relay there is a plastic rotating disk. About the size of a button, different in color from the bottom of the relay.
Next to the regulator there are arrows, to the right - to increase power, to the left - to reduce.
Adjust the sensitivity in the evening, and in the afternoon after installation, set the sensor position to the minimum value. Smoothly, without sudden movements, turn the intensity regulator to the right, and when the light turns on, you can consider it done.
An astrotimer is essentially the same as a photorelay. The principle of operation is the same.Turn on the light at nightfall and turn it off in the morning as soon as the sensor is activated. Its difference from the photo relay is that it has more advanced technologies:
- Built-in GPS allows you to determine your region and accordingly automatically adjust to the time when it starts to get dark, and when dawn comes.
- You set the date and time in it, and he adapts himself to the season and season.
It looks like a fairly small plastic box, has a white color and a screen. It displays the time readings in the form of numbers, etc.
What is the convenience of this equipment in comparison with photo relay
The principle of operation is absolutely similar. But the astrotimer does not have false calls.
Clearly stated readings will not change due to weather conditions or interruptions.
The ability to install in the dashboard, on the street, in the garage - anywhere.
No need to highlight, and the frequent presence of a person nearby is also not necessary.
There is a function for self-adjustment of time in the range from 120 to 240 minutes. If you need it.
If you decide to install a light sensor for street lighting, the price should also interest you.
On the market, day-night light sensors are expensive.And you can easily afford an ordinary light sensor. Choose the country of origin and decide what price you can “pull”. The range ranges from 2,000 to 10,000 rubles. You yourself choose how this item is needed in your everyday life and how much you are willing to spend on it. After all, the principle of action is quite simple, and everything can be done independently, with your own hands.
The main advantage of the most amazing sensors for street lighting is a significantenergy savings.In addition, for its maintenance and maintenance does not need a lot of money. Put on energy-saving light bulbs and enjoy the light in your home or street. It is possible to choose the light bulbs: warm or cold. New technologies allow you to install and configure the photocell with your own hands, which will significantly save your budget. A large selection of devices makes it possible to install sensors even with a small supply of current, which is convenient in small suburban areas. A large choice of color, shape and material from which the device is made, makes it easy to integrate into your interior and make it more harmonious and stylish.
In addition to beauty and convenience, safety due to modern equipment will also be an important quality. A light sensor for street lighting, the connection scheme of which is very simple, illuminates all inaccessible places and makes your personal plot safer. Often, leaving our own garage, we highlight our way with a flashlight on the phone. Sometimes, when we come from the store, we simply do not have enough hands, and we have to go to the door of the house almost blindly. Older people, children can play and move around quietly, not afraid to fall or stumble upon something sharp. Secure yourself and your family!