Incubation of quail eggs at home: mode and features of the process
To date, quite a lot of summer residents are engaged in breeding pets and chickens. It is worth noting that this is not quite an easy task. Quail meat has a high value and excellent taste, so many farmers think about breeding this bird. The main difficulties here are that the chicks can be obtained only through artificial incubation, since quails do not have the ability to hatch. Therefore, planning to open a farm, it is necessary, first of all, to get acquainted with the way in which quail eggs are incubated at home. This is what will be discussed later in this article.
A few words about the equipment
What do you need to know about it? Incubation of quail eggs is carried out in special devices, so the opening of the farm begins with the purchase of the necessary equipment.Nowadays, the range of incubators is simply huge, so it is very easy for beginning poultry farmers to become entangled in such a wide variety.
Experienced farmers speak very well of the “Hatch” incubator. It is heated from the inside by incandescent bulbs, which are located under the main tray, and the temperature can be adjusted from 25 to 400 degrees Celsius with the help of a special regulator. The tray is equipped with a special automatic system, so the incubation of quail eggs will occur completely without your participation. The only disadvantage of this model is the high cost. Equipment without the function of turning eggs costs much less.
When choosing an incubator, you need to pay attention to whether it contains the following:
- special heating elements;
- thermostats to set a specific temperature;
The latter work according to the following principle: water is poured into special containers, after which it is heated by special heating elements and evaporates. Ventilation is in most incubators of the passive type, and is carried out through the opening of special valves.One such device allows you to get a brood of 200 heads at a time. For domestic purposes, this is more than enough, but if you plan to breed poultry on an industrial scale, then in this case you should consider buying more expensive equipment.
So what does he include? Incubating quail eggs at home requires careful preparation if you want to get well-developed and healthy offspring.
Therefore, before starting any actions you should decide on the following nuances:
- mode of keeping adult birds;
- feeding patterns of newly hatched chicks;
- age of parents;
- the ratio of female and male individuals in the herd.
Experienced poultry farmers, who have been breeding quails for years, claim that the optimum is the proportion in which no more than four females per one male. If there are more females, the number of unfertilized eggs will increase.
You should also understand that incubating quail eggs at home is impossible without ensuring proper and complete nutrition to the bird.It is not recommended to use cheap low-quality feed. Buy should be a mixture rich in fats, proteins and carbohydrates. The amount of protein should not exceed 25 percent. When quails start laying eggs, crushed shells are added to the feed.
If you want to achieve high egg production, then the following products should be present in the daily diet:
- cottage cheese;
- egg white;
- boiled potatoes;
- a piece of chalk;
The way the quail eggs are incubated in an incubator will depend on how well the feeding regime is compiled. This is due to the fact that for the normal development of the embryo and the good development of hatched chicks, an adult individual who has laid an egg should receive a large amount of vitamins, minerals and nutrients. The same applies to temperature. It should not be too cold or hot in the house, as in this case, adults may begin to throw off feathers or freeze.
Selection of eggs for incubation
A novice farmer should pay great attention to the selection of material that will be placed in the incubator.
All eggs must meet certain criteria, the main ones being the following:
- weight: 10-14 grams;
- shell: smooth, without cracks and visible defects;
- shape: oval;
- surface: matte.
Professionals recommend taking medium-sized eggs so that they are not too small or large.
Selection of material with the help of ovoskop
If you want the incubation of quail eggs to go as efficiently as possible, then when choosing them it is better to use a special device called an ovoscope. You can buy it in specialized stores. It is designed for x-raying eggs, and allows you to select only the best of them. If you put spoiled eggs in an incubator, then in conditions of high heat they quickly deteriorate and become a source of germs that can lead to the development of various diseases.
When ovoskopirovaniya need to consider the following parameters:
- number of yolks. If there are two of them, then such eggs are rejected;
- the position of the yolk. It should be strictly centered, without shifting to the side;
- the presence of foreign spots;
- the presence of cracks in the shell;
- position of the air chamber.
Incubation of quail eggs with any defects makes absolutely no sense, since the probability of hatching from them chicks is almost zero.
How to store incubation material?
Let's look at this in more detail. For breeding, you can use only those eggs that were demolished no more than one week ago. Some farmers claim that ten days old material is also suitable for incubation. The air temperature in the room where the eggs will be kept should not be below 10 degrees, and in the incubator - up to 37.4 degrees, the humidity of the air at 75 percent. It is very important that they constantly rotate. Incubation of quail eggs without a coup significantly reduces the likelihood of hatching.
It should be noted that the content of the material in the refrigerator or in the living room is not suitable, since in this case its shelf life is reduced. It is best to pack them in a sealed package and take them to a room where the temperature and humidity of the air are optimal for storage. In this case, the incubation material will retain its properties for 14 days.It is recommended to warm the eggs from time to time. This will significantly increase the percentage of hatchability.
What you need to know about it? After you select and pre-prepare the eggs, they can be laid in the incubator. However, before this, experienced farmers recommend wiping the shell with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or chlorine. In addition, it is necessary to perform disinfection and equipment to kill the bacteria and microorganisms. To do this, it is better to use special tools that are sold in specialized stores. For example, “Ecocide” or “Brovadez-plus” will be a good choice. Alternatively, you can use an ultraviolet emitter.
You can lay eggs both horizontally and vertically. It is not fundamentally important. It is best to use the first option, because it is more practical. At the same time periodically you need to rotate them 180 degrees. As for the vertical placement, the material is located at an angle of 45 degrees.
Of great importance in the poultry industry is the temperature of incubation of quail eggs at home.Therefore, before you bookmark, the equipment must be preheated for at least three hours. After the material is placed in the trays, the temperature is set at 38 degrees Celsius, and after two hours the equipment is transferred to the standard mode.
Features incubation breeding chicks
What is it like? For offspring is not enough to select and prepare material. It is also very important to observe the correct conditions for incubating quail eggs. The period of embryo development is 17 days, during which the poultry farmer must maintain an optimum level of temperature and humidity. This occupation is troublesome, but only so you can achieve maximum hatching.
Let's look at them in more detail. The mode of incubation of quail eggs depends on the time period of development of the chick.
The optimal indicators taking into account the time factor are shown in the following table:
From 5 to 7
If you want a healthy brood, then these requirements are mandatory.
Features breeding quail in the incubator
So, what is worth knowing about it? As you already understood, the specific mode of quail eggs incubation at home depends on the time factor. However, just maintaining temperature and humidity at optimal values is not enough. Experienced poultry farmers say that turning eggs is of great importance, and you should begin to do this from the very first day of laying. This is necessary in order to eliminate the possibility of embryo sticking to the shell. Starting from the third day of incubation, you must start twice a day to ventilate the chamber and spray the eggs, which will avoid their heating up too much. It is worth noting that you should not immediately water the eggs after opening the lid. It is better to wait a few minutes first so that the temperature of the material drops slightly. Otherwise, it is likely that the egg will simply crack.
The optimum temperature for incubating quail eggs at home is one of the key factors affecting normal development. Despite the fact that the embryos of quails have the best resistance to temperature extremes, nevertheless too strong and sudden jumps can negatively affect their growth.The most important thing is to adhere to the prescribed norms and requirements during the first seven days after laying.
To make sure that there are no deviations, you can use an ovoscope. The procedure for inspection of eggs is performed once a week. On the seventh day, during the translucence, the circulatory system of the embryos will be clearly visible. If it is not visible, then this is a sure sign that the germ has died.
As the time of incubation of quail eggs comes to an end, when ovoscoping through the shell, fully formed nestlings will begin to be seen. The last working out is carried out for 16 days after laying the material. If an embryo is not visible in the eggs, they are discarded.
If during the entire period of laying the optimum incubation temperature of quail eggs was observed, then on the 17th day the process of emergence of individuals should begin, which lasts on average about 7 hours. In this case, all individuals are born almost simultaneously.
As soon as the chicks hatch, do not immediately get them out of the incubator.They are left there for 12-15 hours, so that they are completely dried and slightly strengthened. Then quails are placed for two and a half weeks in a warm heated room, protected from drafts. The weight of a single diaper is an average of 8 grams. The number of females and males is approximately the same. Incubation is considered successful if hatchability reaches 80 percent. All non-laying eggs are disposed of two days after the appearance of the main part of the chicks. Waiting longer does not make any sense.
Why incubation can fail?
Not always the poultry farmers achieve the desired result. Many beginners face such a problem when incubation is unsuccessful and the hatchability rate is very low. In most cases, this happens due to non-compliance with the temperature and non-compliance with the optimum level of humidity. The thing is that in the first days after the eggs are placed in the incubator, many different processes begin to occur in them, which require liquid to flow normally. It is possible to provide the embryos with necessary moisture by maintaining a high level of humidity.If this is not done, this will lead to a seal of the shell, and the chick will simply not be able to break through it.
Excessive humidity also adversely affects the incubation period. A perepelenok will not be able to pierce the germinal envelope if a large amount of liquid accumulates in it. In addition, the likelihood of developing various infectious diseases is high, and mold can form inside the egg.
In addition, the following also affects the hatching percentage:
- Wrong feeding and poor diet. If the bird does not receive enough vitamins, minerals and nutrients, then the offspring will be weak and the hatching level low.
- Insufficient airing. Fresh air is vital to the embryo. Therefore, if the poultry farmer does not open the incubator twice a day, the chicks will die inside the eggs due to lack of oxygen.
- Breaking mode violation. If the material is constantly in one position, then the embryo will dry to the shell and may die or be born weak.
- Long-term transportation of eggs. As a result of excessive shaking, their internal structure may be damaged.
Having an idea of what can lead to poor hatchability, you can prevent many errors during the incubation process. Follow the tips and recommendations discussed in this article, and you can achieve good results and get a big and healthy brood.