History of management development. The main stages of management development
If you answer the question “when management appeared” with “the appearance of a person”, there will be no mistake. After all, the control system really appeared at the very time when people united in tribes and literally survived in the wild. The history of management development will be of interest not only to professionals in this industry, but also to the man in the street. From simple communication between people, it has developed into a system of scientific knowledge. And even became a separate activity.
Natural environment and management
The modern concept of "management" is somewhat broader than "management." But for ease of perception in the framework of the article, we will consider both concepts full-fledged synonyms.
The main stages of management development can be timed to certain events in the history of mankind. After all, it was under the influence of human activity that it became necessary to streamline and optimize relationships.Therefore, the emergence and formation of craft, and then industrial production are fundamental factors of management.
Theorists generalized the accumulated practical experience and created their own management techniques, adding the missing elements. Thus, management schools appeared, each of which put one aspect at the center: equality, maximization of productivity, psychological characteristics of hired workers, etc.
Despite the fact that management is several thousand years old, only the end of the XIX - beginning of the XX century is considered to be the period of the birth of the science of management. After all, it was at this time that social market economy was actively developing, which meant that a mechanism for its regulation was needed. And, of course, we call the place of the appearance of this science the Western world.
It should be remembered that Western management - a subculture with its own norms and values, living by its own laws - cannot be applied without adaptation in other countries. But, since management is a whole range of technical procedures for planning, organizing, controlling, and motivating, united by functional links, we are obliged to study world experience and put it into practice.
Variety of management interests
The formation and development of management has generated many areas and trends. Over time, specializations emerged - strategic management, innovation, regional, financial, social, time management, self-management, etc.
The most interesting in this regard are schools of management that consider the object of management of an individual, and not the enterprise. So, time management teaches you to correctly manage your time, and self-management is aimed not only at successful career building, but also at harmonious personality development.
Management History: Ancient World
In ancient Egypt, the priests were in charge of management. This caste stood out against the general background with its knowledge and skills. Since the elementary sacrifice was not limited to human lives, and most often came down to collecting gifts to the gods, the priests quickly learned to manage thousands of people: slaves, peasants, poor people.
Over time, their skills were useful and the Pharaohs. After all, they could organize the life of the state in matters of tax collection or large-scale construction, for example. In addition, the priests were addressed during the settlement of property disputes. We can safely say that the Egyptian priests are the first government officials.
Greeks and Romans about management
In ancient Greece, it was not so much social management that was valued as effective management of latifundia (large farms) and households. In his works, Plato singled out not only titanic (power) supervision, but also political.
The history of management development continued in Rome: the decentralization of provincial government led to more efficient economic management and tax collection. The procurators had enough power to conduct civil affairs. This reform was carried out by the emperor Diocletian. The found documents describe in great detail not only the system of management of the latifundia, but also a list of the necessary works, linked to the calendar year.
Prospects for the development of management can be easily traced in the Code of Babylonian ruler Hammurabi. Perhaps this is the most interesting document among those found during various excavations. It consists of 285 laws that are designed to resolve virtually any issue related to the relationship between different segments of the population. The code is recognized as the first formal system for administering social life.
These management styles are the most ancient main stages of management development: religious, administrative, and industrial construction. The Roman Catholic Church contributed to the establishment of an administrative system that evolved according to a functional principle.
Management History: European Capitalism
The development of industry in the XVIII - XIX centuries put Europe at the forefront in the world. The owners of large industrial enterprises literally needed theoretical developments on the management of hired workers and the efficient use of resources. There were management specialists who also became hired employees.
The history of the development of management traditionally identifies several main areas, united by the term "classic". It consists of scientific, administrative and bureaucratic management.
At the end of the 19th century, blind and unsystematic searches for management techniques of European industrialists received a certain theoretical basis. True, on another continent. In 1886, Henry Town spoke at the meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.In the report “Engineer in the role of economist” he outlined the prospects for the development of management. One of the postulates of this presentation was the statement that the engineer should be interested not only in the details of the production process, but also in the technical feasibility of production. It should be based on the calculation of material costs and the possibility of obtaining maximum profit. This idea was picked up by Frederick Winsend Taylor - the progenitor of scientific management.
At the beginning of the 20th century, technology developed by leaps and bounds. Mankind has received electricity, an internal combustion engine, pipelines and a conveyor. Industry required to standardize and unify all the processes associated with output.
The history of management development is connected with the pace of the technological process. Management schools began to organize in all directions. The already mentioned Taylor has developed many theoretical postulates of control. He was invited to the US Congress, where he gave a speech on the study of the workshop production process. In the first decade of the 20th century, he published several works (“Factory Management”, “Principles of Scientific Management”, “Testimony before a special commission of the Congress”),Began to start the school of science management.
Principles of Scientific Management
If until now it was believed that for the successful operation of the factory, it was necessary to find a reasonably reasonable and honest manager, then with the advent of Taylor they began to talk about the need to analyze the production process and optimize all its components.
The fundamental principles of scientific management are precisely the division of the process into simple operations and the definition of a scientifically based task for each worker. According to Taylor, this was supposed to increase productivity. However, for even greater efficiency, the scientist suggested actively using material incentives for hired workers.
Among the experts who preached scientific management, it is worth noting the spouses Gilberts and Henry Grant. The latter focused on the rationalization of simple physical labor. Lilian Gilbert, left after the death of her husband with 12 children, focused on the psychology of personnel management. And, of course, it is worth paying tribute to Henry Ford. His conveyor simply turned the idea of production and allowed to talk about the narrow specialization of workers, which led to an increase in productivity.In aggregate, all this constitutes the main factors for the development of management.
Yet classical scientific management lacks individualization. Each component of the production process (including people) was considered as a completely unified unit without any individual characteristics.
The development of strategic management began in the "School of Administrative Management." This line of management has focused on the organization as a whole. Henri Fayolle and Marie Parker Follett (founders of administrative ideas) paid attention to planning, coordination and control.
In the well-known work “General and Industrial Management”, Fayolle mentions 14 fundamental principles of management. Still relevant today and influenced the development of Russian management: autocracy, unified work plan for the whole company, management chain, etc. Nevertheless, the desire for unification did not erase from Fayol the understanding of the importance of the manager's personality. Theorist believed that the main part of the enterprise’s success depends on the experience and skills of the manager.
These same ideas developed and studied Marie Follett. She argued that only the harmony of capital and labor can give a positive result. This Follet offered to achieve harmony through the individual motivation of each employee.
The history of the development of management shows that the theorists mainly concentrated on the rationality of production. So, the German Max Weber proposed to consider the organization completely impersonal. His ideas became the basis for the development of a bureaucratic school of management.
Weber argued that success will come to the company that best defines the duties and responsibilities of each employee, develops a unified system of formal reporting and “divides property and management from different angles”. If we recall the Soviet times, we can safely say that the history of the development of management in Russia has taken the path of Weber’s teachings. Bureaucracy makes it possible to consider all employees equal in rights: both in terms of functions performed and in terms of responsibility. After all, all are guided by the same rules.Weber set forth these thoughts in The Theory of Socio-Economic Organization.
The problems of development of management were basically the principle “organization is a machine”. Over time, managers became more and more, and their work became more and more formal. The cumbersome structures and the mass of paperwork led to the fact that the speed of decision-making was lost. After all, it is in the competitive market that management should be involved. The history of the emergence and development of classical management theories demonstrates how the whole science was created, which is engaged in increasing the efficiency of the enterprise.
School of Human Relations
Among the other drawbacks of the classic management is often referred to as "the absence of man." Therefore, the modern development of management is still based on the teachings of the school of human relations. Among its other theorists, the psychologist Elton Mayo stands out, whose research in the field of psychology of behavior in the workplace still has no analogues.
According to the results of his experiments, Mayo argued that the attitude to work and its quality can be influenced by creating informal relationships in a team. It was the art of communicating with people that should lead the company to the heights of success.The essence of his concept is that it is necessary to individually motivate employees so that they can maximize their potential.
The famous needs pyramid
The most famous representative of behaviorism is Abraham Maslow. His “pyramid of needs” is as simple as it is ingenious: only five levels of human needs allow us to find exactly those elements of motivation that will reveal the inner potential of each employee. A satisfied employee is an effective employee.
The humanistic approach to management is rooted not only in economics, but also in sociology and psychology. The history of management development in Russia is moving along the path of behaviorism. After all, the interaction of people and their internal driving forces are able to create the necessary “relaxed” working atmosphere. In such an environment, a person wants to bring more benefits to his organization.