General characteristics of reactive meningitis
Meningitis - an acute inflammation of the membranes of the brain,which develops as an independent disease or as a secondary lesion due to the transfer of infection from any pathological focus in the body. This disease is most often diagnosed in children, although it can develop at any age.
Reactive meningitis: general characteristic
Inflammation of the meninges is classified according to the pathogen. Thus, viral, bacterial, syphilitic, as well as fungal, tubercular or other forms of this pathology are isolated.
And what kind of disease is reactive meningitis? This defeat of the membranes of the brain, which is characterized by spontaneity and rapid development, as well as a high level of lethality. Defeat, as a rule, develops as an organism's response to the action of bacterial and viral agents. This pathology is also called neurotoxicosis. It is manifested by the edema of the brain, which clinically resembles the true meningitis.
Among the main causes of reactive meningitisit should be called a violation of blood circulation in the brain tissues, as well as metabolic pathologies that cause acidosis and increase the permeability of the vessel walls. In the development of neurotoxicosis, the direct effect of toxins on the central nervous system is also important.
Provoking factors can be pathologiespregnancy (gestosis, severe labor or fetoplacental insufficiency), convulsive readiness, which is characterized by the appearance of seizures, even with a slight increase in body temperature, as well as atopy and high nervous excitability.
Clinic of reactive meningitis
This disease can occur against a background of various infectious pathologies, as well as otitis and sinusitis, furunculosis in the face or neck area, as well as with abscesses in the lungs.
The main symptoms of reactive meningitisare a sharp increase in body temperature to 40 ° C and severe fever. Patients complain of bouts of nausea and vomiting. There is stiff neck, there may be pain in the throat. It is worth noting that this clinic is easily confused with the manifestations of ARVI. When untimely treatment of reactive meningitis, death occurs.
At the beginning of the disease, patients are excited. Dyspnoea and palpitation are recorded, convulsions may develop. The characteristic spasm of the vessels is manifested by cold extremities and oliguria. If there is no appropriate therapy, signs of CNS depression are developing due to cerebral edema. There is a loss of consciousness, meningeal symptoms and continuous seizures.
When reactive meningitis develops, photopatients in the final stages has specific features - attracts attention strabismus. In addition, there is an expansion of the pupils, a rare heartbeat and a decrease in temperature, which indicates the defeat of the medulla oblongata. The terminal phase of neurotoxicosis is a deep coma with cardiac and respiratory arrest.
Diagnosis and treatment
Timely detection of reactive meningitis is problematic due to rapid clinical development and too late treatment of patients in medical institutions.
To identify the pathogen,cerebrospinal fluid microscopy. As a rule, when a meningitis is found, the coccal flora. In addition, disintegration of erythrocytes, a large number of leukocytes and high ESR in a general blood test are characteristic. Urine - dark color, contains protein and blood.
Patients are treated in intensive careoffice. Because the development of the disease is lightning fast, antibiotics are immediately prescribed from the group of macrolides, cephalosporins or penicillins, which are characterized by a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity. To reduce the edema of the brain, diuretics can be prescribed, and spasmolytic drugs and muscle relaxants can be used to relieve muscle spasms and spasms. The complex treatment includes glucocorticoids. If the disease has a viral etiology, then prescribe drugs "Niovir" or "Viferon".
The faster the therapy is started, the better the chances of recovery.