Foreign policy of Russia in the 17th century: main directions, tasks, results

In the history of our country the XVII century is verya significant milestone, since at that time there were many events that affected all subsequent development of the state. Especially important was Russia's foreign policy in the 17th century, since at that time it was very difficult to fight off numerous enemies, while still retaining the strength for domestic work.

What determined the political mood?

foreign policy of russia in the 17th centuryIn general, the needs of cultural,economic and military character determined all the subsequent development of our country in those centuries. Accordingly, Russia's foreign policy in the 17th century was completely dependent on the tasks that the statesmen faced in those difficult times.

Main goals

First, it was necessary to urgently return allThe lands that were lost as a result of the Troubles. Secondly, the rulers of the country had the task of attaching back all those territories that once were part of the Kiev Rus. Of course, in many respects they guided not only the ideas of the reunification of the peoples divided once, but also the desire to increase the share of arable land and the number of taxpayers. Simply put, Russia's foreign policy of the 17th century was aimed at restoring the integrity of the country.

The Troubles had a very serious impact on the country: the treasury was empty, many peasants became so poor that it was simply impossible to take taxes from them. The acquisition of new lands, not looted by the Poles, would allow not only to restore Russia's political prestige, but also to replenish its treasury. In general, this was the main foreign policy of Russia in the 17th century. The table (the 10th grade of the school should know it perfectly), given in the article, reflects its most global goals.

Exit to the sea

foreign policy of russia in the 17th century tableFor their implementation, it was extremely important to haveaccess to the Black and Baltic Seas. First, the availability of these ways would allow to strengthen economic ties with Europe without problems, establishing supplies of not only rare goods, but also technologies, literature and other things that could help to eliminate the backlog of the country in the industrial sphere.

Finally, it was time to decide something with the Crimean khan: it is not worthy of a large country at that time to suffer from the raids of some "petty-slender" allies of the Turkish sultan. However, do not forget about the old army story about the paper and ravines ... On this path was a lot of difficulties.

Promotion to the East

It should also be remembered that Russia's foreign policy in the 17th century largely pursued the goal of expanding the country to the East in order to further develop and exploit those lands.

In particular, for exports, a hugethe number of sable furs that were in great demand in the world. The problem was only that in the European part of the country these valuable animals were long ago raised. Finally, it was imperative to reach the Pacific Ocean and establish a natural border on it. And further. There were enough "violent goals" in the country, it was a shame to cut. It was decided to send the most active but troubled people to Siberia.

foreign policy of russia in the 17th century brieflySo two tasks were solved at once: the center of the state was getting rid of "undesirable elements", and the border was under reliable protection. This was the foreign policy of Russia in the 17th century. The table will show you the main tasks that were to be dealt with then.

The main landmarks of Russia's foreign policy of the 17th century

Main goals

Consequences, methods of solution

Return of Smolensk land, which was lost during the Troubles

In 1632-1634 the Smolensk war was conducted, according to which Mikhail Romanov was recognized by the Commonwealth as the legitimate ruler of Russia

Patronage of the Orthodox population of Rzeczpospolita loyal to Russia

This led to the Russo-Polish War of 1654-1667years, and also contributed to the Russo-Turkish War of 1676-1681. As a result, Smolensk land was finally won, Russia included Kiev and adjacent territories

Solving the problem with the Crimean Khan

Immediately two wars: the aforementioned Russo-Turkish War of 1676-1681, as well as the first Crimean campaigns of 1687 and 1689. Alas, but the raids continued

The development of the lands of the Far East

Eastern Siberia was annexed. With China, the Treaty of Nerchinsk is concluded

Getting a pass to the Baltic

The war with Sweden in 1656-1658, according to which the return to the sea failed

Russia's foreign policy in the 17th century was complicated. The table clearly demonstrates that, without wars, not a single decade has gone by, success has not always accompanied our state.

What prevented the solution of the most important tasks?

The main one was not even the activity of "eternalfriends "in the face of Britain and France, and its own technological backwardness. Europe during the next Thirty Years' War was able to completely rethink the theory of weapons and organization of troops on the battlefield, as well as tactics of their application. So, the main striking force was again the infantry, which from the end of the Roman Empire was on the lead roles. The means of strengthening it was the artillery that was developing at that time.

Backwardness in military affairs

And here Russia's foreign policy has stalledin the 17th century. The table (grade 7 must know its main points) is not in a position to show this, but the army was extremely weak. The fact is that in our country the backbone of the armed forces was still the nobility's cavalry. To fight the remnants of the once powerful Horde, she could have been successful, but when she met with the army of France, she would certainly be in for serious losses.

foreign policy of russia in the 17th centuryThus, Russia's foreign policy in the 17th century (summarizing) was aimed primarily at creating a normal military, commercial and administrative and diplomatic apparatus.

On Weapons Problems

A huge country largely depended onfrom weapons imports. The backwardness in tactics and armaments was planned to be eliminated by the intensive import of weapons from European manufactories, as well as the recruitment of officers. All this resulted not only in dependence on the leading powers of that period, but also quite costly for the country.

Thus, Russia's foreign policy in the 17th century(the main directions of which we have described) was based on paradoxes: on the one hand, no one doubted the need for war with the Europeans. On the other hand, it was they who bought expensive weapons and ammunition for it, which increased the military and economic power of the Old World powers, but greatly weakened Russia, already exsanguinated by the Troubles.

So, the day before mentioned in the tableThe Russian-Polish war had to spend a lot of gold. In Holland and Sweden, at least 40,000 muskets and 20,000 poods of selected gunpowder were purchased. This number was at least 2/3 of the total number of infantry weapons. At the same time, the tension on the part of Sweden continues to increase, which not only blocks access to the Baltic Sea, but continues to claim a large part of the Russian lands.

Attitude to the country in the international arena

Very badly affected by the fact that theWest Russia was perceived only as an extremely backward, "barbarian" country, the territory of which was subject to mandatory expansion, and the population was planned to partially assimilate. In all other respects, the sad fate of the Indians of North America was foreseen.

Thus, more than everforeign policy of Russia in the 17th century. Its main tasks were aimed at "chopping the window", which Peter later did. Economic and military backwardness was largely due to banal territorial isolation, as the powerful Turkish-Polish-Swedish barrier stood in the way of establishing normal relations.

foreign policy of russia of the 17th centuryDo not forget about the constant intrigues of Englishmerchants, who did not smile at all to get a powerful competitor in trade matters. All these contradictions could be resolved only by creating a powerful army and breaking through the trade and economic blockade.

Here is the main foreign policy of Russia in the 17th century. To put it briefly, the most important tasks lay in the West, from which the military threat was more clearly felt.

Wars in the West

All this led to the fact that in 1632, immediatelyafter the death of Sigismund III, in the Commonwealth began a war for the revision of the Deulin agreements. The instigator was our country. Unfortunately, the forces were clearly unequal. In general, Russia's foreign policy in the 17th century (the summary of which we have already discussed) largely failed due to the extreme imperfection of the administrative, military and diplomatic corps.

We give the most obvious and annoying volumeexample. Due to extremely bad diplomacy, the Polish king Vladislav managed to establish contact with the Crimean Tatars. The slow Russian army, led by M. Shein, consisted of servicemen. When they found out that the Tatars started regular outings inland, they simply left the army, leaving to defend their estates. All this ended with the signing of the Polyanovsky Peace.

I had to return to Poland all the conquests at the beginningwar of the land, but King Vladislav completely renounces any claims to the Russian lands and the throne. The defeat was declared guilty by the governor M. Shein and A. Izmailov, who subsequently were chopped off. Thus, Russia's foreign policy in the 17th century is not particularly successful for us.

The territory of present-day Ukraine

foreign policy of russia in the 17th centuryAt the same time, thenational liberation movement on the territory of present-day Ukraine. In 1648, in those parts, another uprising broke out, which was caused by unbearable conditions for the Orthodox population, who lived on the territory of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

The culprits were Zaporozhye Cossacks. In general, they led a very good life: guarding the limits of Poland from the raids of the same Crimean Tatars, they received a decent reward (not counting the war booty). But the Poles were not happy with the fact that the Cossacks were taking into their ranks any fugitive servant and they never betrayed him back. The methodical "twisting of nuts" began, the cutting of Cossack freemen. The immediately flared uprising was headed by Bogdan Khmelnitsky.

The successes and failures of the rebels

In December 1648, his troops occupied Kiev. In August of the next year, peace agreements were signed. They provided for an increase in the number of "official" Cossacks, to which the authorities had no complaints, but on that list of achievements was coming to an end.

Khmelnitsky understood that without help from outsideit will not be possible to correct injustice. The only candidate for allied relations was Russia, but its authorities were not too eager to fight, because it took time to fully reform the army. Meanwhile, the Poles did not tolerate a shameful peace; already in 1653 the rebels were under threat of complete extermination.

foreign policy of russia in the 17th centuryRussia could not allow this. In December 1653, an agreement was concluded on the reunification of Ukrainian lands with Russia. Of course, immediately after that the country was dragged into a new war, but its results were much better than the previous ones.

This is what characterized Russia's foreign policy in the 17th century. The main directions, tasks, the results of it you will find in this article.

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