Emitter drip tape. Tape drip irrigation
Anyone engaged in crop production, inevitably faces the problem of applying liquid fertilizers and watering. One of the most effective methods for solving this problem is irrigation, in which drip tape is used. This method has been actively used in practice for more than 60 years. With its help, the consumption of resources is significantly reduced, the yield increases, the spread of weeds and plant diseases decreases.
With the usual method of irrigation, water jets can damage plants and beds. Soft and safe watering, on the contrary, offers drip tape. Moscow is replete with shops offering this system, so it will not be difficult to acquire it.
Drip tape designs
The design of such a tape is very simple. It is only a thin-walled tube with holes. However, the method of arranging the outlets is extremely important.This is what determines the quality of irrigation and durability of the entire system.
The labyrinth type drip tape is the simplest: a special channel is located on the surface of a thin-walled tube, because of the shape of which the technology got its name. The labyrinth reduces the pressure of water, as a result of which it seeps drop by drop. Unfortunately, this tape is not strong enough, short-lived and does not provide uniform watering. Also, when constructing an irrigation system, more energy will have to be spent on ensuring that the watering holes are located at the top.
Slit drip tape is more reliable. It also has a maze water channel in the form of a labyrinth, but, unlike the previous type of structure, it is located inside the ribbon. In this case, the installation of the system is simpler, and the risk of accidental damage is lower. When using tapes of both types, the water for irrigation should be very clean: even if the most advanced filtration system is installed, the structure will clog pretty quickly, and by next season a full change of irrigation lines will be required.
One of the latest innovations in this field is emitter drip tape.When applied, irrigation occurs through emitters - special labyrinth flat droppers. The design of the latter creates turbulent flows that promote self-cleaning. Moreover, when using it, it is not necessary to pay much attention to filtering water for irrigation. This tape is less clogged and lasts much longer (up to three seasons).
How to use tapes?
Tape drip irrigation is made with different step emitters. The smaller the pitch, the more expensive the product. However, it is necessary to take into account not only the desire to save money, but also the needs of the grown crops.
Thus, ribbons with a 10 cm emitter pitch are used for plants that are planted at a short distance from each other (for example, lettuce, carrots, onions, etc.). They are suitable for sandy soils and for growing moisture-loving crops.
For cucumbers, the tape with a dropper step of 20 cm will be most suitable.
Tapes with a step of 30 cm are needed for medium-grained soils and for watering plants planted at an average distance from each other (such as tomatoes, cucumbers, eggplants, etc.).
Tapes with a pitch of 40 cm or more are suitable for plants planted at a great distance from each other (melons, pumpkins, squash, squash, etc.), as well as for creating long irrigation lines.
For potatoes, the best option would be a tape with droppers, located half a meter apart.
Amount of water for irrigation
It is worth paying attention: when emitter drip tape is used, it helps to reduce water consumption for irrigation. But at the same time, the flow of water by the emitter of the ribbon for plants is important: they have different needs for moisture, and the configuration of the irrigation system and the type of soil may require specific volumes of liquid. The data are as follows:
- from 2 to 3.8 liters per hour is suitable for sandy soils, two-row plantings and plants with a strong root system;
- from 1 to 1.5 liters per hour - the golden mean, the best choice in most cases;
- from 0.6 to 0.8 liters per hour - for very long watering systems, dense clay soils, or for those cases where it is impossible to provide water pressure of sufficient strength.
In the instructions, the manufacturer indicates what water flow the emitter can provide the appropriate drip tape.
An important condition for the use of drip irrigation is the obligatory mulching of the land in the beds, since the thermal conductivity of the wet earth is noticeably increased.
Parameters of the drip system
Two more parameters that you should pay attention to when choosing a drip tape are its thickness and diameter. The first indicator is 0.125-0.375 mm. It affects the strength of the tape: the smaller the value, the thinner the material used in the manufacture. As a result, great care is required during operation, mechanical effects are undesirable. Systems with the greatest thickness will be useful on stony soils, and will also be protected from insects and animals. In addition, these tapes will last more than one season.
The second indicator affects the length of the watering line. In drip irrigation systems, the dependence of water flow on the length of the drip irrigation tape and the slope of the soil surface is strong. On sale you can find the tape, the diameter of which - 22 mm (line length - up to 450 m) and 16 mm (line length - up to 250 m).
Also, the manufacturer can be declared a different degree of protection against blockages. For pure water, filters with different degrees of purification are used.
How much does a drop tape cost a buyer? The price currently ranges from 7 to 8.5 rubles per meter.
Installation of drip irrigation system
The simplest drip irrigation system is gravity. It can be constructed as follows, using certain rules:
- The design of the irrigation system does not require the use of metal elements, since gradual corrosion will increase the risk of blockage.
- On the dais set the tank with water. Each meter of height at which it is located increases the pressure in the system by 0.1 bar (i.e., the height of 1 meter will provide 0.1 bar, 2 meter - 0.2 bar, etc.). A tie-in is made above the bottom (less litter will get into the system), and a crane is installed.
- The filter is connected to the tap on the sidebar.
- Next, the pipe is fastened, which is perpendicular to the beds. Opposite each row in the pipe are drilled holes for smart connectors.
- At the end of the pipe is placed a valve for flushing the system. All necessary smart connectors are mounted.
- The tape gently fits along the bed, with the emitters should be at the top. If the plants are planted in one row, the tape is laid on the side, and if in two rows, then in the middle, in the aisle.
- One end of the tape connects to the smart connector, and the other is muffled (to do this, you can fold this end several times and tie it with a thin rope).
Before using the watering system should be washed.It is necessary to ensure that only clean water is used, and the filter is regularly cleaned (at least once a week). After applying fertilizers, the system should also be washed with water.
The design of the emitter tape involves self-cleaning, but you can not neglect water filtration. Accidental debris will quickly clog up and thereby disable watering lines. When choosing a filter, you need to consider the flow rate of the emitter. If this parameter is equal to a liter per hour or less, then the diameter of the channel in the tape will be very small and can easily become clogged. Therefore, it is worthwhile to provide for a finer filtering. At a flow rate of two liters per hour or more, it is quite enough to stop the ingress of large litter into the watering lines.
It is necessary to take into account the pressure of the fluid entering the watering lines. The tape will break, if the pressure is very strong. And if too weak, the water from the emitters will not flow. The minimum and maximum values are specified by the manufacturer in the product manual.