The dodger belongs to the family of lamellar subfamily of earthworks. A distinctive feature of this species are the elbows with a lamellar mace. Invader lives all over the world, except the territories of the Far North. It not only does not harm people or the environment, but also contributes to soil formation, acting as a natural "medic".
Coloring dung beet is quite diverse. The most common beetles are black, but there are individuals of green, blue, black and blue, black and green. In any case, the abdomen of any dung beet is distinguished by a violet hue with elements of metallic luster.
In most cases, turning the dung beetle can be seen at the base of the legs of small reddish creatures - parasitic mites Gamasus coleoptratorum.
In essence, dung beetle is an ordinary beetle that performs complex landscape work, which is especially in demand after numerous herds of animals pass through a forest-steppe zone.It decomposes the manure left after them into organic substances, which are easily absorbed into the soil and stimulate the growth of new plants.
It is noteworthy that this beetle was specially brought to Australia. The fact is that initially there were no ungulates, and they were imported by people. Within a short time, livestock increased significantly, and manure began to accumulate on the soil surface in such quantity that it began to hinder the growth of grass.
Over time, this could lead not only to starvation of cattle and a decline in pasture productivity, but also to serious diseases, since manure attracted a large number of flies, which seriously plagued humans and were the main carriers of harmful bacteria. It was then that manufacturers deliberately brought a batch of beetles from Africa, quickly achieving a decrease in the volume of manure.
Internals are not only useful, but also very intelligent beetles, who have developed a complex system of care for the offspring. Most often, the dabbler hides the larvae in the soil, rotting wood or manure, thus providing not only protection from the weather, but also relative heat.To do this, dung beetle sculpts a ball out of the manure, which, pushing with its hind legs, moves it to a secluded place. In the future, it will serve as the main food for the larvae, ensuring full development.
The larva of the beetle beetle is thick and sedentary. Despite the fact that the entire period of development, she stays in manure, during this time she never defecates. Thanks to the device intestine, equipped with a special extension, all the excrement is collected in one place. It is for this reason that the shape of the larva during the development period resembles the letter "C".
It is noteworthy that if the dung beetle decides to lay eggs in the dung heap, then he makes oblong lumps of manure at the rate of one lump per larva.
What dices beetle eats?
Since manure contains a small amount of nutrients, the development of the larvae can last from one season to several years. At the same time, the largest individuals, even having turned into a beetle, continue to remain in the manure ball until the formation of a full-fledged individual is completed. After that, the dung beetle gets out onto the surface and starts an independent search for food, among which it prefers horse manure (for lack of it it is content with cattle excrement).Moves in search of food mainly in the evening. At the same time, some species of beetles can use mushrooms and detritus along with manure, and some - not to eat at all.
Today, there are two main categories of dung beetles:
- Coprophaga. This group includes beetles with a large pectoral shield and strong ankles of the front legs, allowing for fairly fast digging functions. Some individuals show strong signs of sexual difference.
- Ateuchus (Scarabaeus). The main difference from the first group is that the head shield of these beetles is a semicircle, and the eyes are divided in two. The size of the largest individuals does not exceed 4 cm. The most widespread in southern Europe (including Russia) and in northern Africa.
The only difference between them is that the first group of beetles of the first group of the upper lip and jaw is leathery, covered type, and the second - hard and open.
Types of dung beetles:
The fate of adult beetles
The life of an adult ceases immediately after an ideal place is found for the development of the future offspring.A pair of dung beetles tightly bricks the inlet and proceeds to laying eggs, which will be close to them during the entire period of their life. Since both the female and the male are sitting in a burrow without access to food, their death occurs in about a month from the day they start laying eggs and protecting the offspring.