Classification of antibiotics
Antibiotics belong to the groupchemotherapeutic products that are formed by microorganisms, inhibit the growth of infectious agents or the development of tumors (malignant tumors). Many of them are able not directly, but indirectly affect the protective properties of the body, stimulating (immunomodulators) or suppressing (immunosuppressors) immunity.
The study of antibiotics began in 1929 after the discovery of the healing properties of penicillin.
To date, several tens of thousands of antibiotics have been discovered and described, but for treatment, they are most often used by about fifty species, differently fighting different diseases.
With the help of this group of substances, hundreds of diseases can be cured, among them: plague, tuberculosis, anthrax, many other terrible, rapidly damaging human or animal diseases.
As with all medicinal substances, the classification of antibiotics depends on their origin, mechanism of action, chemical structure.
Antibiotics are substances derived fromextracts of bacteria, fungi, animal tissues. If the substances obtained as a result of the extraction of colonies did not yield to additional treatment, then the antibiotic is considered to be natural. If the molecule is chemically modified to improve its properties, we can speak of the semi-synthetic origin of the substance.
So, the classification of antibiotics by origin implies antibiotics, natural and semi-synthetic.
If one takes into account the way in which these drugs fight the disease, then the classification of antibiotics according to the mechanism of action divides them into:
- drugs that disrupt the normal functioning of cell membranes;
- substances that stop the synthesis of protein and amino acids;
- inhibitors that destroy or inhibit the synthesis of cell walls of all microorganisms.
By the type of exposure to the cell, antibiotics canbe bactericidal and bacteriostatic. The first very quickly kill harmful cells, the second slows down their growth, prevents reproduction.
The classification of antibiotics according to the chemical structure takes into account groups according to the spectrum of action:
- beta-lactam (natural, semi-synthetic, wide-spectrum substances) that have different effects on microbes;
- aminoglycosides, which influence bacteria;
- tetracyclines, suppressing microorganisms;
- macrolides, combating Gram-positive cocci, intracellular stimuli, which include chlamydia, mycoplasma, and the like;
- anamycins, especially active in the treatment of gram-positive bacteria, fungi, tuberculosis, leprosy;
- polypeptides that stop the growth of gram-negative bacteria;
- glycopeptides, which destroy the walls of bacteria, stop the synthesis of some of them;
- anthracyclines, used for tumor diseases.
This classification of antibiotics helps clinicians to correctly choose the type of drug effective in combating this or that pathogen.
However, in order for the treatment to be successful, andthe medicine was chosen correctly, the doctor must first consider which pathogen caused the disease, and then determine the resistance of this pathogen to different groups of the drug.
After that, the specialist determines the optimal amount of a substance that can destroy the disease, but at the same time provide a minimum number of side effects, duration of treatment.
Classification of antibiotics, which should knowany specialist will help, if necessary, to select several drugs that help to enhance the mutual effect or extend the spectrum of the drug.
Because antibiotics are potent substances that can cause severe side effects, they can only be used as directed by a specialist.