Apoplexy. Symptoms Causes. Treatment
Apoplexy stroke or hemorrhagic stroke is an acute pathological process caused by ischemia (vascular thrombosis) or its shell.
Stroke ranks second after cardiovascular diseases among the illnesses that cause the death of a person. In addition, it is the shock suffered in 80% of cases that leads to disability.
Among the causes of hemorrhagic stroke, high blood pressure is the most common. The risk of this disease increases many times in people suffering from hypertension. Often, apoplexy occurs after a nervous breakdown or heavy physical exertion.
People who have had a stroke at least once in their lives should be careful, because it can happen again. To prevent this from happening, it is recommended that hypertensive patients daily measure blood pressure in the morning and evening, and if it rises, take measures to reduce it, and if necessary, seek medical help.
Also the following factors can provoke an apoplexy:
- heart diseases;
- overweight and overeating;
- excitement, fear or anger;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- summer heat (intense heat).
For hemorrhagic stroke is characterized by the following clinical picture:
- often the patient has a severe headache;
- high blood pressure and rare pulse;
- there is a strong pulsation of the neck vessels;
- there may be a sharp loss of consciousness;
- sometimes nausea and vomiting;
- the eyeballs are often set aside to the lesion, the patient cannot focus his eyes, the pupils of different sizes, the pupil on the lesion side is larger;
- paralysis (lack of movement and sensitivity) or paresis (partial paralysis) is observed on the opposite side, i.e., if the left hemisphere is affected, then the right half of the body suffers, most often hemorrhages in this hemisphere cause motor disorders;
- extensive intracerebral hemorrhage can provoke involuntary movements in healthy (non-paralyzed) limbs;
- slurred speech;
- facial flushing (turns red);
It is very important to take the patient to the hospital as soon as possible if an apoplexy is suspected. The symptoms listed above are usually not all at once, but one or two or more.
First aid for stroke
The prognosis for this disease depends largely on how soon the patient began to provide professional medical care. The patient's chances for recovery increase many times over if he was in a hospital no later than two hours after the stroke.
If someone from the family has had an apoplexy (seizure), it is already necessary to take action before the arrival of the ambulance.
- To move the patient to a cool place, it is convenient to lay him down and unbutton his clothes that interfere with free breathing. Lift patient's head slightly.
- In the room to open a window or window.
- If it is clear that one side of the body is already paralyzed, then on the opposite side of the head put ice or cloth moistened with very cold water.
- Feet, on the contrary, you need to warm. On caviar you can put mustard plasters, put a heating pad on your feet.
- If swallowing in a patient is not disturbed, give him a means of reducing pressure, and sedative.
- The patient should not be left alone, it is important to monitor his breathing, not to allow the language to fall.
- In case of nausea, turn his head to the side. To clear the airways of vomit and mucus.
- Provide the patient with complete peace and wait for the arrival of the doctor.
Further treatment of the patient is carried out only in the hospital.
Treatment of apoplexy in the conditions of a medical institution is conducted in several directions at once. Regardless of the type of stroke, basic therapy is carried out, which involves reducing blood pressure, normalizing all vital functions and reducing brain edema, and preventing the development of secondary infection and complications (congestive pneumonia, pyelonephritis, DIC, thromboembolism).
In ischemic stroke, all actions are directed to the restoration of blood supply in the lesion of the brain.
Treatment of hemorrhagic stroke is aimed at reducing the permeability of the vascular walls and preventing the collapse of an already formed blood clot. Surgical intervention with this type of stroke is effective.
After discharge from the hospital for a patient who suffered a stroke, relatives and friends become indispensable assistants. Even with a good prognosis, full recovery of such patients will not happen soon.
Good nutrition, massage and special physiotherapy are necessary for patients after a stroke. Such patients should not be left alone after discharge. They need the support of relatives. Patience of relatives and consistency in the implementation of all the necessary recommendations of the doctor will help such patients return to a full life faster.