Acoustics concert and acoustics architectural: what is the difference
Properties of musical and acoustic acousticsused even the ancient Greeks. It is known that in order to ensure uniform audibility, the distance from the source of sound to the listener must be less than 20 m. Many modern halls and auditoriums are built with this rule in mind. The location of spectator seats on the principle of the amphitheater allows not only to see perfectly what is happening on the stage, but also to hear the voice of the speaker well.
Three main types of concert halls
For the purpose and perception of sound among the auditoriums, the following categories can be distinguished:
- with natural free acoustics;
- equipped with sound reproducing equipment;
The first type includes the ancient amphitheatres. The propagation of sound waves occurred in a special way, and even a whisper was heard in the very last rows with the same intensity and clarity as in the initial ones. Experts believe that the best concert acoustics, the best reproduction and perception of sound - it is in the classrooms using the principles of architecture of these ancient buildings.
To the second group of premises for a largeThe number of viewers include various cinemas. In panoramic, conventional and large-format auditoriums, the transmission and propagation of sounds occurs only through special equipment. The rooms for watching movies are equipped with single-channel and multi-channel stereo systems.
The third type is universal modernmulti-purpose concert halls designed for a huge number of listeners. To achieve high levels of loudness in the halls of modern configuration, the newest equipment is installed, the best concert acoustics.
Architecture and the science of sound
For the first time the term "acoustics" physicist J. In 1701, Sauver named the science of studying movements and beats of sound. Based on his methods of analyzing the vibrations of plates, strings, membranes, air poles, a basis for the development of several scientific directions was subsequently developed. Among them is the doctrine of the special sound of musical instruments.
Their contribution to the development and study of movements, the behavior of sound waves in different years, has been made by such important individuals in science as:
- Leonardo da Vinci;
- G. Lagrange;
- Henry Hertz;
- F. Savar;
Continuing the work of his father, Vincenzo Galilei(music theorist, composer, one of the founders of the opera genre), Galileo Galilei for the first time gave a clear explanation of how the human ear perceives tones and the frequency of sound waves.
In ancient buildings (cathedrals, amphitheaters)good audibility, acoustics of concert halls was created exclusively by architectural features of buildings. Knowledge of these laws helps architects design sports facilities and congress halls, theatrical and music halls, clubs and discos for the reception of several thousand spectators.
What is the difference between concert acoustics and any other
Already in the twentieth century, fundamental changes occurred in thethe formation of the science of the propagation of sound waves. The appearance of a phonograph and a telephone, radio and television, a microphone and multimedia means is still contributing to the enormous development of amplifying equipment.
Active acoustics, concert, passive - thisa generalized name for music broadcasting complexes consisting of dynamic speakers and microphones, monitors and front speakers, subwoofers and sound projectors.
Equipment for concert shows
In modern realities acoustics concertis provided not only by the internal device and the volume of the room for performances, but also by technological means. When equipping clubs, large halls, large variety venues and premises, specialists complete sets of special powerful equipment. Acoustics concert must meet the requirements of listeners, for whom a performance is arranged, so the package must include:
- Front main speakers (loudspeakers), creating a dense sound stream;
- satellites - small columns reproducing sounds of high and medium frequencies;
- central loudspeakers, conveying vocal parts, speech, dialogues;
- monitors - devices that maximally translate all sound nuances;
- sound projector (active acoustics) - a concert system consisting of several loudspeakers and amplifiers built into one case for simulating a six-channel stereo transmission;
- subwoofers - bass speakers, which enrich and fill any music.
Is it possible to improve the acoustic properties of the auditorium
According to international standards, for executionmusic of different genres requires rooms with different acoustic characteristics. Only a few of the best concert halls in the world can provide the necessary parameters. The bulk of the requirements for sound quality can be achieved through architectural and design techniques.
To create a comfortable sound pressure indifferent points of the room, providing a "natural" sound, apply a noise-isolating finish. In some cases along the walls there are semi-cylindrical deflectors made of gypsum or plywood. Acoustics, concert equipment will create with this approach a wonderful impression of variety shows and shows.
In halls with too high ceilings abovethe stage and the sections of the walls adjacent to the stage are hung with special reflectors of sound. Such devices from plywood help to evenly distribute sound energy throughout the room.