A blood test and decoding in children - what can be revealed?
Modern medicine widely uses variousmethods of examining the body, in time to diagnose, determine the tactics of treatment. With the development of medical care itself, these methods are becoming more complicated, but in most cases it usually starts with a simple blood test.
Blood test and decoding in children isthe main source of information about the state of health of the baby. Even if the child does not have any expressed manifestations of any disease, doctors recommend that such procedure, as a general blood test, be done with a preventive goal at least once every six months. And there are several good reasons for that. A recent survey conducted by the Institute of Pediatrics showed that 80% of the children's population suffer from a latent form of anemia. This is particularly true for environmentally disadvantaged regions of the country. Outwardly, such a condition may not show any painful symptoms, but in such children there is a significant lag in physical development and a decrease in immunity, expressed in frequent catarrhal diseases.
A blood sample is usually taken from the distalpads of the middle finger with a sterile disposable scarifier, so that there is no fear of transmission of any infection. A few drops of fresh blood are applied to the sterile same slide and fixed. The analysis of blood and transcription in children is carried out only by a specialist with a higher education. That is, the laboratory issues only numbers, and only the doctor can interpret them in terms of diagnosis in a child of a disease. In large medical centers - it can be a hematologist, but in the vast majority of cases the process is performed by the district pediatrician.
What can the blood test and decoding of children show and what does the doctor first look at?
The number of erythrocytes (red blood cells) insample and hemoglobin level. Normal indices are not less than 4.0 per liter of erythrocytes and not less than 120 g / l of hemoglobin. Lower figures suggest anemia.
From the cellular composition of the blood is also importantthe white blood cell count. They should be at least 9 -9.5 per liter. In addition to their total number, the value also has their composition, since among them there is a division into basophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes and monocytes. Together they make up the so-called "leukocyte formula", which the blood test and interpretation in children displays from left to right. Specialists often use the term "shifting the leukocyte formula to the left," which means an increase in the number of white blood cells in the left side of the formula, that is, neutrophils and eosinophils. This usually indicates an acute inflammatory process (including infectious) in a child. But the "shift of the leukocyte formula to the right" (lymphocytes and monocytes) indicates a tendency to allergic reactions. In some cases, with the usual formula of "white" blood, there is an increase in the number of only eosinophils, an experienced physician can say about the presence of parasitic invasion in the body (ascaridosis, giardiasis, etc.)
An important indicator that reflects a blood testand decoding in children, is ESR or sedimentation rate of erythrocytes. Normally, the figure should not exceed 10-15 mm per hour. An increase in this indicator is a sure sign of the presence of a pathological focus of inflammation in the body.
Thrombocytes (cells responsible for clottingblood) should be at least 2-3 per / liter of blood. Reducing their number or form disorder can talk about a hereditary disease (thrombocytopenia), which should be treated as early as possible.
Analyzes of blood in children, as in adults, do notare limited only to general analysis. In some cases, especially with various forms of jaundice, a biochemical blood test is required, which is taken from the vein and also on an empty stomach. Here you already see direct and indirect bilirubin, enzymes AST, ALT, for evaluation of liver function and other figures that are clear only to specialists.
In general, the blood is considered as one of the tissuesorganism (along with muscles, bones) only in liquid form. Each person's blood cells are relatively quickly updated (on average every 3-4 years). There is even a method that allows you to determine the sex of the child by updating the blood. The essence of it is briefly: in women, starting from the age of 15 (we do not take into account younger ones), the blood is renewed every 3 years. And for men, starting from the age of 16, every 4 years. It is believed that whose blood is younger, there will be a child of this kind. The method is rather controversial, as in general all non-medical methods of "programming" the sex of a future child, but nevertheless are not worse or worse than others.